My school years were a time when music was listened to from the radio, tapes or vinyl records. Over the years, CDs appeared, and for some time now we have had access to almost everything that has ever been recorded: it is enough to type the appropriate phrase into an Internet search engine. We got access to phonographic materials, sheet music, and books stored almost everywhere in both hemispheres. Why do I start with this? Because as part of the activities of musicologists, theorists and performers, we are beginning to rapidly broaden our horizons with regard to music from our country. When planning the program of the Chopin and His Europe Festival, National Fryderyk Chopin Institute includes less obvious music from Chopin’s time. The NFCI has also initiated publishing series: phonographic and book series discovering works and artists previously existing only in encyclopedias. There is also the catalog of Acte Prealable, a company specialized in recordings and premieres of Polish music. We have gained access to a relatively large number of recordings of previously unknown and never played music. International labels such as Naxos and Hyperion, as part of their very broad portfolio, are introducing composers considered so far niche. And all this – as I wrote above, is available at a single click. We therefore face the challenge of assessing their value honestly and possibly finding them a place on the music scenes again. In the course of the Artistic Scholarship of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage in 2021/2022, I prepared a project that involved working on four relatively forgotten piano trios:
This article is one part of the project and is aimed to discuss the reasons why these compositions are absent from our musical life. To begin with, I would like to say a few words about each of the compositions listed above .
The Piano Trio in E Major, Op. 5 by Franciszek Lessel is one of the most underrated works in Polish music history. He composed it during his stay in Vienna, where he studied with Joseph Haydn in the years between 1799 and 1809, being one of his favorite pupils . Trio Op. 5 is the second consecutive composition for piano with the obligatory participation of two instruments. The first such attempt was the Grand Trio Op. 4 for piano, clarinet and horn.
Lessel’s own pianistic skills must have been considerable, as evidenced by the fairly demanding piano part. This is how his talents were described after one of his concerts in Warsaw:
His Lordship Lessel, in his concert, made it known that he plays the piano like a master in his art (…), he adhered to the truest principles of taste .
What is unique about Trio Op. 5 is the autonomy and yet indispensability of all instruments. The Composer emphasized this already in the title of the work:
Trio Pour le Piano-Forte avec Violon et Violoncelle obligé.
And indeed, by no means does it resemble the accompanied sonata, the prototype of the piano trio form, which was still practiced with such grace by Joseph Haydn and revolutionized by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In terms of the idiomaticity of composing for such a combination of instruments, Lessel goes the furthest of them all. Over the piece, he repeatedly relieves the cello of its obligation to follow and reinforce the bass piano part, giving it a range of functions that maestro Haydn never dared to try. Stylistically and expressively, Lessel combines the achievements of Haydn and Mozart and the slowly emerging brillante style.
I found two studio album recordings:
Dated 1831, Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński’s Grand Trio in A minor, Op. 17 is undoubtedly one of the most impressive chamber compositions of the first half of the 19th century – not only in the catalog of Polish composers’ works. Powerful in size (app. 45 minutes), it is characterized by an arrangement of movements typical of symphonies and a full palette of expressive means comprising both classical models and the brillante style then in vogue. During the premiere performance, the piano part was played by Joanna Naimska , a pianist and singer who also studied with Jozef Elsner – Dobrzyński’s teacher. She must have possessed good piano technique, given that she decided to perform such a virtuoso part – it is not without reason that the piece is dedicated to one of the most outstanding pianists of the era, Johann Nepomuk Hummel.
Dobrzyński’s artistic activity was greatly affected by a younger rising star, Frederic Chopin. The Grand Trio, Op. 17 was written a year and a half after Chopin’s Piano Trio in G minor, Op. 8. The two compositions show some similarities (four-movement, identical formal arrangement, textural similarities, use of cracovienne in the finale), but also quite a few differences (duration, means of expression, treatment of piano virtuosity).
It seems that Dobrzyński took a different, more conservative path. He commented on comparisons with Chopin in a letter to the Gazeta Muzyczna Teatralna paper in 1865 as follows:
Chopin has an individual style, an individual form, a charming grace (…). In brief, he possesses all that no one before him has shown, – or dreamed of in their work. (…) Therefore, to put any name next to Chopin is pointless, (…) I am saying this about talents in our country .
Despite this self-critical tone, it seems that out of Chopin’s peers, in terms of potential, Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński was the closest to him.
Here, too, there are two studio recordings:
Piano Trio no. 3 in E Major, Op. 22 by Wladyslaw Zeleński is a unique piece in the history of Polish 19th century chamber music. It was given large size with a very skilful and conscious use of the potential of the piano trio. What adds to its uniqueness is the Latin motto from Friedrich Schiller’s poem Song of the Bell, which is also a traditional maxim inscribed on church bells:
Vivos voco. Mortuos plango. Fulgura fango.
(I call the living, I mourn the dead, I chase the lightning)
These are the titles of movements, adding a programmatic character to the composition. Is Trio Op. 22 an author’s attempt to transplant the idea of a symphonic poem into chamber music? It is difficult to say with certainty that Zeleński had such aspirations. For one thing, he was a rather conservative composer, prioritizing knowledge and compositional technique over following the fashionable novices of the time, but for another, the programmatic elements in Trio Op. 22 were noticeable from the first performances of the work. Jan Kleczyński, in an 1876 review, points out the illustrative nature of the work, including “the cry of the cello and the tolling of the bell” imitated by the piano .
In the context of the totality of Polish chamber works of the 19th century, Żeleński’s Trio deserves far more attention and coverage in concert programs, as it is one of the most solidly written chamber pieces and a natural link between the chamber works of Chopin and Dobrzyński and the oeuvre of Karol Szymanowski and Polish modernist composers.
There are three recordings available on the publishing market:
The neoromantic Piano Trio no. 4 in G minor, Op. 2, by Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński, written in 1892-1894 in Vienna during his piano studies with Theodor Leszetycki, earned Melcer great recognition. He submitted it, along with his Piano Concerto No. 1 in E minor and two piano miniatures from his opus Morceau caracteristique, to the Anton Rubinstein Composition and Piano Competition in Berlin in 1895. The jury included: Feruccio Busoni, Charles-Marie Widor, Karl Klindworth, Julius Johanssen. The trio was performed with the participation of the composer on August 20, 1895. Melcer himself described the event in a letter to his wife as follows:
The trio went brilliantly, impossible to wish for better. Applauding before the end is not allowed, but every now and then, especially at the end of each movement, you could hear: “schön, joli, czudiesno”, compliments in all languages. When they saw that I was having a hard time turning the pages, one of the jury members jumped to the stage and kept turning the pages for me. But in general they were delighted with my trio. (…) The trio will be played in Berlin at the Singakademie around November 4: they only ask me not to play it in Berlin before then .
Melcer was awarded the first prize in the amount of 5,000 marks for the aforementioned compositions, as well as the third prize as a pianist. On January 10, 1896, the public premiere of the Trio in G minor took place in Warsaw: Melcer played with Stanislaw Barcewicz and Adam Cinek. In March 1896, during a concert mentioned in the letter to his wife, the composer performed his Trio in Berlin with Prelle and Lundemann. A review in the Berliner Tageblatt praised the composition as: “one of the best pieces of contemporary chamber music.”
There is also a mention of a performance of the Trio in G minor on March 23, 1896 at a private concert at the Karłowicz’s’ home (Mieczysław Karłowicz – violin, Zygmunt Butkiewicz – cello, Feliks Starczewski – piano). The subsequent known performance, with the composer on the piano, took place on October 3, 1901 in Łódź .
The Acte Prealable catalog features two versions of this trio :
There is also an archival radio recording:
As can easily be noted, the phonographic history of these compositions is considerably limited. Apart from the archival recording of Melcer’s Trio Op. 2, there was no interest in the aforementioned works until the 21st century – in the case of Franciszek Lessel’s Trio, almost exactly 200 years after the work was composed. How is it possible that it has only been less than 20 years since artists brought these forgotten works back to life?
Here I must once again direct the reader back to the opening paragraph. These rather sentimental sentences about listening to music from the radio, cassettes and vinyl were meant to establish a certain status quo. As a musician, I have been involved with chamber ensembles for many years, and am now very much familiar with this repertoire. However, I noticed a certain disturbing correlation in my initial perception of this music.
In those prehistoric days of tapes and radios, I used to read about music I could not listen to. There were several options available back then. One of the essential ones was to read and analyze the series of Przewodniki Muzyczne [Music Guides] published by PWM. It was quite a perversion to know the great symphonic, operatic or chamber repertoire while having heard only a small percentage of it. In a very similar way I was learning about the American NBA basketball league at that time. Polish tv would broadcast basketball games once a week and newspapers would not report the NBA scores until a month later – so I was snooping through stats and archived games, not having access to live events. This brings me to my point: my favorite Przewodnik po muzyce kameralnej [Guide to Chamber Music] (of over 630 pages) contains descriptions of the following Polish piano trios: Chopin, Dobrzyński, Malawski and Meyer. Therefore, for a long time I thought piano trios were a niche genre. This confirmed the common opinion that, apart from the Chopin Trio and the Zarębski Quintet, nothing interesting had happened in Polish chamber music of the 19th century. Years pass and what can a young chamber musician do? He turns to the natural enclave of Polish music, which should be the Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne publishing house. Unfortunately, browsing through the “trio” category does not change his idea of the condition of Polish music for this chamber ensemble either. At present, there are four publications available: Fryderyk Chopin, Antoni Rutkowski, Ludomir Różycki and Andrzej Panufnik. If desperate, we can search on websites such as IMSLP – Petrucci Music Library. And here, some surprises may be waiting for us, if we have enough determination. Digging further into the resources of the Internet, we begin to collect more data. Ewa Skardowska in her book Relacje w trio fortepianowym [Relationships in Piano Trios], compiled a list of Polish trios from the late 18th and early 19th centuries to the mid-20th century. In 2013, the list included 24 positions. Currently, I have managed to enlarge it to 29, and this is certainly not the final number:
Józef Elsner (1769-1854) – Grand Sonata in B major, 1798/Vienna – IMSLP
Józef Elsner (1769-1854) – Piano Trio in C major (ca 1798)
Franciszek Lessel (1780-1838) –Piano Trio op. 5, 1805/Vienna – IMSLP
Franciszek Mirecki (1791-1862) – Piano Trio op. 11, published by Eufonium
Franciszek Mirecki (1791-1862) – Piano Trio op. 22, published by Eufonium
Wojciech Sowiński (1805-1880) –Piano Trio op. 76, published by Eufonium
Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński (1807-1867) – Grand Trio op. 17, published by Breitkopf u. Härtel, 1834/Lipsk, published by Eufonium
Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849) – Piano Trio op. 8, published by PWM (NIFC)
Karol Kątski (1815-1867) – Piano Trio op. 30, 1859/Paris – IMSLP
Karol Kątski (1815-1867) – Fantaisie concertante sur „La sonnambula”, 1862/Paris – IMSLP
Antoni Kątski (1817-1899) – Piano Trio (before 1863)
Michał Bergson (1820-1898) – Grand Trio concertant sur des motifs de Verdi op. 35, published by Eufonium
Emanuel Kania (1827-1887) – Piano Trio in G minor, 1867, published by Eufonium
Józef Wieniawski (1837-1912) – Piano Trio op. 40, 1885/Brussels – IMSLP
Emil Śmietański (1845-1886) – Piano Trio in G minor
Antoni Stolpe (1851-1872) – Piano Trio (ok. 1869)
Władysław Żeleński (1854-1921) – Piano Trio op. 22, published by C. F. Kahnt, Lipsk/1875 – IMSLP
Antoni Rutkowski (1859-1886) – Piano Trio op. 13 (1877), published by PWM
Zygmunt Zaremba (1861-1915) – Trio-Fantaisie op. 51, published by Eufonium
Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński (1869-1928) – Piano Trio op. 2, wydane Ries u. Erler, Berlin/1900 – IMSLP
Eugeniusz Morawski-Dąbrowa (1876-1948) – Piano Trio op. 16 (1900)
Grzegorz Fitelberg (1879-1953) – Piano Trio op. 10 (1901)
Ludomir Rogowski (1881-1954) – Suite Rapsodique, published by Eufonium
Ludomir Różycki (1883-1953) – Rapsodia op. 33, (1913) published by PWM
Apolinary Szeluto (1884-1966) – Piano Trio in D major op. 81
Aleksander Tansman (1896-1986) – Trio No. 2 for piano, violin and cello (1938)
Paweł Klecki (1900-1973) – Trio op. 32 (1940)
Szymon Laks (1901-1983) – Piano Trio (1950)
Andrzej Panufnik (1914-1991) – Trio op. 1 (1934) – published by PWM, Boosey&Hawks.
What does this imply? Does the mere existence of such a number of composers and their compositions in the piano trio genre condition their quality and value? We all know that at a time of rapid development and popularity of this form, dozens of new piano trios were written in Vienna in the eighth decade of the 18th century. Only a couple of them are being performed today and those are by Haydn and Mozart. However, we are talking about the form’s earliest period, and its development was diligently documented . Why did Polish chamber music not find recognition in the eyes of Polish musicologists and publishers?
Obviously, the political situation of the 19th century had a colossal impact on the development of Polish culture. Suffice it to say that the most important cities such as Warsaw, Lviv, Krakow, Vilnius and Poznan were part of different countries. Attempts to tie artistic activities to the aristocracy and rich bourgeoisie proved to be very insecure, and they also came at a price:
In the eyes of the intelligentsia and the bourgeoisie,
music was to provide entertainment and festive atmosphere, or to support the efforts to preserve the national identity, and it was mainly measured from this perspective. Purely artistic criteria were of secondary importance .
As Maciej Negrey wrote, from a certain point in history we had to do without balance in the three main pillars of music development: composers, professional performers and art education.
Notwithstanding this difficult situation, Polish composers remained active: they studied abroad and published in major European cities. When they returned to the former territory of the Republic of Poland, problems would appear. For long periods, musical life was centered around music salons, which operated in almost every city. A music salon, however, is not a philharmonic hall, and amateur musicians are not a professional orchestra. The notion of “salon music,” which so marked the music of the 19th century, gave artists oxygen while taking away direction and aspirations. Another quote from Negrey:
Should we be surprised that Jozef Nowakowski (…), while still a student, publicly praised by Stanislaw Staszic for his progress, for his two symphonies, four overtures and a clarinet concerto, ended up composing songs and piano miniatures? Anyway, these actually survived, because the small publishing houses operating in Warsaw at the time were able to publish them. Meanwhile, the other works remained manuscripts – and burned in the Warsaw Uprising or were lost earlier. In comparable cases, Polish music historians used to comfort themselves with the conviction that nothing too terrible had happened, because these lost compositions were probably worthless anyway. This belief inhibited any research and quest for truth, and our knowledge of Polish music of the 19th century remained incomplete and distorted .
Now that we have a (very simplified) picture of the problems and the genesis of the decline of Polish music in the 19th century, let us take another look at the list of artists and their works above. It is, against all logic, something to be proud of. It is a pity that it took so long to start academic writing about this forgotten part of our legacy. Another important step will be to ensure that new editions of the sheet music are published. Then let us play them again so that they can be reassessed by performers and audiences. We should get to know them before we decide whether we want to forget them once more.
The four compositions I’ve been working on over the past year inspired numerous reflections. First of all, it turned out that there is more valuable Polish chamber music than Chopin’s Trio and Zarębski’s Quintet (in fact, I had learned this earlier, during project of Józef Wieniawski – Piano Trio G major, Op. 40 ).
What proved to be the most interesting was the pre-Chopin work – Trio Op. 5 by Franciszek Lessel. It is without a doubt a treasure and every effort should be made to ensure that it is played and recorded as often as possible. Edition and publication of the score in 2019 by Euphonium  was a great thing. Past performers were condemned to playing from the first edition available in the public domain (IMSLP), which meant no score, only separate voices, and the edition itself looked like handwriting. I have no doubt that for many – especially young performers, this was a discouraging factor. As a composer, Lessel – a student of Haydn – starts where his master left off. It is a great pity that due his gradual withdrawal from the music profession Trio op. 5 is his only piece for piano, violin and cello.
The Grand Trio Op. 17 by Dobrzyński is a very aspirational piece, suffering from the “disease” of the brillant style consisting in almost complete subordination of texture and form to the dominant piano part. This downside was the outcome of the activity of prominent pianists including Hummel, Weber, Moscheles and the young Chopin, and few were able to cope with it. Anyway, at the time it was not a problem. These were utilitarian compositions that could be performed without or after a single rehearsal even with less qualified instrumentalists. Dobrzyński fits into this trend no worse than the composers mentioned earlier. Nevertheless, it seems that even considering the capabilities of audiences of the time, a 45-minute work is a demanding proposition. For comparison, here are the durations of pieces from a similar period and in a similar style:
During the discussed period three works reached similar size to Dobrzyński’s Grand Trio. These are: Beethoven’s “Archduke” Trio in B major, Op. 97 (average performance duration of about 38-40 minutes), and Trios in B major and E flat major by Schubert (38-40 and 40-43 minutes, respectively) – but these are works that, while having their own specificity, clearly diverge from the aesthetics of the brillante style.
Dobrzyński particularly extended the first and last movements. The edition of Professor Andrzej Wróbel, available for some time in the PWM catalog, suggested a cut in the fourth movement. In my opinion, this idea was beneficial to the piece. I see its greatest weaknesses in the size and redundancy of the outer movements. The first edition of the work is currently available on the Internet for free (IMSLP – the quality of the performance materials similar to Lessel’s trio), in a sold-out PWM edition stored in several libraries, and a new edition by the Euphonium publishing house .
Wladyslaw Żeleński’s Trio in E Major, Op. 22 is a high quality work, which in my opinion needs an outstanding performance to cover some of its flaws. The potential of the composition, supported by an evocative programmatic layer in the form of the subtitles, is huge, although it is an open question whether it is the programmatic or the symbolic that was the point. Reviews by contemporaries either complained about the multiplicity of musical ideas and insufficiently interesting melodies, or accused Zeleński of composing in an uninventive and automated manner . For performers, the greatest challenge is to plasticize the themes giving them a distinctive character (especially in the first movement) and to transparently narrate the connecting passages. Only the first edition of the work, available in the public domain (IMSLP), remains available to potential performers.
Trio in G Minor, Op. 2 by Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński is an example of a composition that was very well received by audiences and reviewers in Europe, but which in Poland met with indifference. A realistic assessment of the work’s potential is difficult. Certainly, the composition has many interesting thematic and dramaturgic ideas. It is also very well written for the medium of the Piano Trio – the balance between the instruments is maintained in both the texture of the work and the sound layer. Still, it has its shortcomings. One of the most notable is (again) the size of the work. Both existing recordings come close to 42 minutes. In reception, this unfortunately gives the effect of an “overdone” work where schematic repetitiveness prevents spontaneity and freshness. Why works such as Melcer’s Trio or the Dobrzyński Trio described above maintained such gargantuan sizes? Did the composers not receive enough feedback after the first performances to know that their compositions were losing coherence and narrative verve? In the oeuvre of both Dobrzyński and Melcer, the trio form appeared relatively early and only once. We do not know whether these compositions were preceded by studies and sketches. Also, the reception of these works ended a few years after their publication. Perhaps there never was a solid discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of these works. I already mentioned the complicated situation of composers at the time; the low aspirations of the natural recipients of these works, and the shortage of professional performers. Then there is another aspect of this situation:
Local music critics were hardly able to change it. A reading of the collection of reviews by Polish critics shows that no reliable or adequately capacious model for the evaluation of chamber works had been developed in Polish literature. Very often the coverage of chamber music performances (…) contains only brief information about the fact of the performance, which, when compared with voluminous paragraphs describing symphonies, operas and songs, also allows us to believe that, in general, the authors of the reviews were not particularly interested in chamber music. .
Historically, at least one famous chamber work in its original version breaks records for voluminosity. I am referring to Piano Trio in B major by Johannes Brahms. The first version from 1854, published as Op. 8, is 48 minutes long. In the first movement alone, there are 5 themes in 494 bars. Later in his life, Brahms wrote at least two more classic trios (the authenticity of Trio A major, found in the second decade of the 20th century, has not been unequivocally confirmed by musicologists). Since Trio in B major had mixed reviews from the beginning, after 35 years he decided to rework the composition, guided by the principle: less is more. The first movement was shortened to 289 bars. Nowadays, a full performance of the revised version of the Trio in B major with repeated exposition takes about 36 minutes and is considered the valid version of this work. I bring up this whole story to support the hypothesis that Dobrzyński and Melcer may have lacked motivation to revise their works. They lacked the experience and compositional skill that would grow with successive works within the genre. What was lacking, as I indicated above, was objective criticism, but above all, personalities such as Clara Schumann and Joseph Joachim (Brahms’ closest friends), who, having themselves performed their friend’s work many times, could have described it most in a most complete and honest way.
When working on these particular works, I allowed myself to take a creative approach to the score. The outcomes will be available for assessment on the example of Trio Op. 2 by Melcer, recorded with the Herbert Piano Trio, as the project intended. The composition has lost almost 25 percent of its content yet it has not lost a single element of its own identity. Is this possible? Melcer’s congenial transcription of Moniuszko’s Overture might serve as an example. I’m ready for any criticism, but I also hope for an informed evaluation of this new version.
Has this project been a success? I believe in fidelity in performance. I try to be faithful to the musical text, but looking beyond the score itself. We are talking about period compositions, when it was the musicians who gave life to the scores. My confident understanding of the spirit of the composer and his times, and the belief that I am helping this composition, is the justification for using Licentia poetica. For after all, as Maestro Jerzy Maksymiuk says:
Let’s read music like poetry, not like a newspaper.
1. Borkowski M., Żeleński/Szeluto/Fitelberg, SPMK 15, 2020.
2. Dybowski S., Słownik Pianistów Polskich, Selene, Warszawa 2003.
3. Gwizdalanka D., Przewodnik po Muzyce Kameralnej, Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, Kraków, 1998.
4. Jachimecki Z., Władysław Żeleński, Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1987.
5. Płońska K., Franciszek Lessel, [in]: Porrtal Muzyki Polskiej, https://portalmuzykipolskiej.pl/pl/osoba/7058-franciszek-lessel
6. Renat M., Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński. Chamber Music with Piano, AP0278, Acte Prealable, 2013.
7. Renat M., Władysław Żeleński. Chamber Music with Piano, AP0277, Acte Prealable 2012.
8. Skardowska E., Relacje w trio fortepianowym, Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina Warszawa, 2013.
9. Smallman B., The Piano Trio: Its history, Technique, and repertoire, Clarendon Press-Oxford, 2002.
10. Władysław Żeleński i krakowski salon muzyczny: tożsamość kulturowa w czasach braku państwowości, red. Mania G., Różański P., Stowarzyszenie Polskich Muzyków Kameralistów, Kraków-Skarbona 2017.
11. Zieziula G., Wokół kameralistyki Władysława Żeleńskiego i zachowanego w polskich zbiorach rękopisu kwartetu fortepianowego Mozarta, NIFCCD 110, Narodowy Instytut Fryderyka Chopina, 2020.
12. Zieziula G., Władysław Żeleński, [w]: Portal Muzyki Polskiej, https://portalmuzykipolskiej.pl/pl/osoba/4402-zelenski-wladyslaw
2. Lessel F., Trio op. 5 na fortepian, skrzypce i wiolonczelę, ed. Ogryzek S., Budzyńska Z., Roguska J., Eufonium 2019.
4. Dobrzyński I. F., Grand trio a minor op. 17 na skrzypce, wiolonczelę i fortepian, ed. Wróbel A., PWM Kraków, 2002.
7. Brahms J., Trios für Klavier, Violine und Violoncello, ed. Herrlich E., G. Henle Verlag, München 1972.
 The descriptions of the works are taken from Wikipedia entries I authored and are part of the scholarship program.
 Dybowski S., Lessel Franciszek, [in]: Słownik Pianistów Polskich, Selene, Warszawa 2003.
 Skardowska E., Relacje w trio fortepianowym, Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina, Warszawa 2013.
 Borkowski M., Żeleński/Szeluto/Fitelberg, SPMK 15, 2020.
 Piątkowska-Pinczewska K., Henryk Melcer-Szczawiński. Życie i twórczość., Instytut Pedagogiczno-Artystyczny UAM, Kalisz-Poznań 2002.
 Smallman B., The Piano Trio: Its history, Technique, and repertoire, Clarendon Press-Oxford, 2002.
 Negrey M., Władysław Żeleński 1837-1921 , [in:] Władysław Żeleński i krakowski salon muzyczny: tożsamość kulturowa w czasach braku państwowości, ed. Mania G., Różański P., Stowarzyszenie Polskich Muzyków Kameralistów, Kraków-Skarbona 2017.
PBT Podgórskie Biuro Tłumaczeń
ul. Kielecka 29B, 31-523 Kraków